Tag: Urban Astronomy

Urban Astronomy April 6, 2021 (about 0630)

Published April 5, 2021

The Earth has gone around the Sun again and Jupiter is in the morning sky once more.  The Urban Astronomy Cursor (AKA, The Moon) is again indicating that planet around 6 to 7 AM.  Shortly thereafter the Sun rises.  Readers will remember that the “last time around” Jupiter and Saturn were close neighbors.  Now more distant, they are. You will find Saturn at a 45 degree angle up and to the right from Jupiter.

The waning crescent Moon points out Jupiter and Saturn.

Urban Astronomy – Orion

Posted December 21, 2020

The night sky is pretty much a mystery to most City Dwellers.  The glare of city light drowns out all but the brightest stars – and planets don’t do much better.  If you are interested, I can tell you where to look to see these far-off worlds.  If you were not interested, you would have stopped reading after the first sentence.  So, at this point, I know my audience. 

By the way on the date of this post, you should go out shortly before sunset and look for the Jupiter/Saturn Conjunction in the Southwest sky. Don’t look at the Sun, OK?

By the way, on the date of this post, go out shortly before sunset and look for the Jupiter/Saturn Conjunction.

UrbanAstronomy-all posts

So far, I have used the moon as a cursor to point out the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.  This is four of the five “eyes only” planets and since Mercury is so elusive, we have pretty much run out of subjects.  There is other stuff in the sky, of course and we might just as well look at those.   

As stated in my prolog for this series, the night sky is a mystery to city dwellers and they might find stars interesting.  Why – you may ask – would I be interested in points of white light that never change?  Long ago, people were interested in stars because they clearly documented the progress of the seasons.  If you are a subsistence farmer (and most people were) you had a vested interest in knowing when to plant and when to harvest your crops. 

As these farmers – and later astronomers – studied the stars, they came to know that they are not all the same color and they actually do change – at least some do.  Furthermore, a few of the stars are not actually single points of light, but are surrounded by luminous gas and dust.  Some look like single stars but – under closer observation – are actually double or triple stars.  Some are clusters of stars with likewise interesting traits.

So, this time I’ll send you out to look at the moon and then direct your attention at the constellation of Orion.  The date is December 28, 2020 and time is 2100 (nine PM).  This is Houston and US Central Standard Time, but around this date, if you can find the moon, after sunset, you should be able to find the constellation.  Orion is known for its three bright stars in “Orion’s Belt”, as well as its two brightest stars, Betelgeuse* and Rigel.  You will see them labeled on the skymap, below.

*You may wonder how to pronounce this.  As a young elementary school student, I did too.  Nobody around the elementary school knew either and I called it, “bet” (wager) “tel” (as in telephone) “geeze” (as in geezer).  With accent on the wager.

Nobody had the knowledge to say otherwise until a college Astronomy professor corrected me.  The word sounds just like “Beetle Juice”.

Steve:  Sorry, I didn’t know!

Prof:     It’s OK Mr. Campbell, nobody does at first.”

Obviously, I was not the first ten-year old Astronomy Nerd.

As you see, I have marked Orion with an arrow from the moon to Orion (that I have apparently drawn with a blue crayon).  Also, please note the “A” that I have placed to point out an object to be discussed later.

I will also post a time-lapse photo I made of this region of the sky.  It shows about half of Orion.  I could show you the whole constellation, but this picture was photobombed by a passing helicopter.  You can see that the aircraft had a constant white light and a flashing red one.  I could probably take pictures every night for a year and not capture something like this – that happened by accident alone.

This 10 or 20 second exposure was taken in early 2020.  Of the three stars in Orion’s Belt, you see two, below the big yellow “2”.  I have pictures with all three, but no helicopter.  The big yellow “1” annotates Betelgeuse, the red-hued star that is the brightest of all in the constellation and referred to as “Alpha Orionis” – meaning the brightest star in Orion.  The big yellow “3” shows you Rigel, the second brightest star in Orion (Beta Orionis).

“Hold on there, Laddybuck!” you are saying, “I can clearly see that Rigel (Yellow Three) is much brighter than Betelgeuse.”

At that particular time, it was, indeed.  Betelgeuse is a variable star  and pulsates – not as extremely as that red helicopter beacon, but at least enough to make you all say, “Hold on there, Laddybuck!”

And, in fact this particular dimming of Alpha Orionis was unprecedented.  Please see chart below:

Betelgeuse Brightness 1965 – 2020

As you can see, Betelgeuse’s drop in brightness was the most severe in many decades.  There was actual serious speculation that Betelgeuse was collapsing.  When red supergiant stars (of which Betelgeuse is one) collapse, the result is a catastrophic explosion called a Supernova.  Is Betelgeuse headed that way?  If so, the “Conventional Wisdom” is that – because the star really, really big and is so close to our Solar System, a Betelgeuse Supernova might easily be visible in the daytime…perhaps for months.

I looked up some more recent data and found the answer…Maybe – but not immediately.

Betelgeuse Brightness 9/2018 – 5/2020

You see that the brightness has recovered completely. 

However, who is to say that this unprecedented drop will not be repeated?  It may take some extreme oscillations to trigger the Supernova.

Latest numbers show Betelgeuse dimming again.

I hope you find this interesting.  😉

What’s that?   The “A” on the skymap?

I’ll get back to you on that one…

Hasta Luego,

Steve

Averted Vision

Posted November 25, 2020

Urban Astronomy

The night sky is pretty much a mystery to most City Dwellers.  The glare of city light drowns out all but the brightest stars – and planets don’t do much better.  If you are interested, I can tell you where to look to see these far-off worlds.  If you were not interested, you would have stopped reading after the first sentence.  So, at this point, I know my audience. 

Prelude

Astronomers have known – for centuries – a secret that reveals the true nature of God! Doubt me if you must, but listen to what I have to say and see if you do not agree.

These astronomers, from centuries ago until now, have all either learned by experience or have been told of an odd thing called “averted vision”. 

Explanation

This situation comes about because vision is ruled by the light detecting nerves in your eye. There are two types, “rods” (low-light sensitive and color insensitive) and “cones” (color sensitive and high resolution but 40 times less sensitive to light in general)

The center of your field-of-view is just lousy with cones and that’s how you read small fonts and so forth.   Your peripheral vision (“in the corner of your eye”) is loaded with rods that detect light quite well, but are not particularly descriptive about it.  It is described in more detail at Sky at Night Magazine

So, over the centuries astronomers learned to look away slightly in order to see more of what they wanted to see. Sounds a bit silly, does it not?

Quotes

Lyrics from Pink Floyd’s Comfortably Numb:

“…When I was a child
I caught a fleeting glimpse
Out of the corner of my eye
I turned to look but it was gone
…”

You will notice that this short quote pretty much describes what I have been talking about.  The rest of the lyrics have been interpreted by others quite differently as you will see at that link above.

Discussion

So, what of this claim about the true nature of God?  This is the first clue I had that God is the biggest (of course) Practical Joker in the Universe. 

Imagine this conversation:

God: Do you want to see that better?

Mortal: Well…yes, I do.

God:  Don’t look at it!

Mortal:   Say What?!

God: You heard me!

(a pause)

Mortal:  Hey, wow!

God:  Told ya! (chuckle)

Some will tell you that this is just “Evolution”.  Others might say that it is God’s Will.

And at least one man asked, what’s the difference?* It was Pope John Paul II – who had no problem with “Evolution”.

*About Life in general, not just averted vision

Epilog

Somehow a small planet created beings capable of asking how they came to be there. It is the only such place we know of.  This even though we have actively looked for extra-terrestrial life and/or intelligence – with steadily increasing range, accuracy and sensitivity – for about a Century.

Say, perhaps all of Life is God’s Practical Joke on the Universe!  😉

Hasta Luego,

Steve

https://www.skyatnightmagazine.com/advice/how-to-master-the-art-of-averted-vision/

https://songmeanings.com/songs/view/2832

Urban Astronomy

 

October 17, 2020 Introducing a new category

Despite this reporter’s career as a Geophysicist, he was an Astronomer by education.  These fields of study overlap when the Astronomy is “planetary”, since Geophysics involves the study of a particular planet to be found under the feet of a standing Astronomer.

  Your Humble narrator also has the habit of swimming – the only form of exercise he can manage to “stick to”.    If one can manage to show up at the pool early in the morning, a single-use swimming lane is to be obtained.  Large swimmers are particularly disadvantaged when “sharing” lanes – and said narrator is large. 

    Reporters are often instructed – by Editors – to refer to themselves in the third person (as above).  Since I am my own Editor here, I am now putting an end to that.

      If I can snag a lane in the outdoor pool, I am able to swim alone and in relative darkness, but even so there is considerable urban lighting with which to contend – not to mention the glaring lamps in the sides of the pool.  Nevertheless, the Astronomer/Swimmer takes note when there are visible stars and planets available for viewing.  

   A few months back, it happened that there were four planets visible from the outdoor swimming pool.  My natural tendency is to point things like this out perfect strangers.  However, some of the people around at this time of morning know me – by sight at least.  And we are all eccentric individuals, or we would not be swimming at 5 AM.  Since having four “Eyes Only” planets in the sky at once is a fairly rare thing, I pointed these out.  The average reaction was one of surprise.  They had no idea of what was over their heads.

The oldest Astronomer joke in the world is to promise to point out one more than the number of planets actually visible.  So, I promised five and pointed out four.  The punch line of this ancient bit of comedy relies on the audience to ask where the fifth one might be. Then the Astronomer replies,  “You’re standing on it!”.   Of course, no one asked about that fifth planet and the joke went flat.  Don’t you people have any curiosity?  Yes, it is an old joke, but none of them ever heard it before – because it is so old.

   Now, the interesting part about that stale humor – if you think about it – is the point it makes.  Specifically, that all those small round lights that this Swimmer is pointing out are actually massive worlds – a lot like the one we are standing on.  Some of them are stunningly larger, some smaller than our own planet.  Some are closer to – or farther from – the Sun.  There are places where “the world” is profoundly different from the “world” we experience.  With those thoughts, the human imagination is expanded beyond the mundane existence of day-to-day life.

  The night sky is pretty much a mystery to most City Dwellers.  The glare of city light drowns out all but the brightest stars – and planets don’t do much better.  If you are interested, I can tell you where to look to see these far-off worlds.  If you were not interested, you would have stopped reading after the first paragraph.  So, at this point, I know my audience.  😉

Some description of how far apart objects in the sky is needed, and “degrees” are another unfamiliar subject for Urbanites.  Extend your thumb and put it at arm’s-length and close one eye.  Now your thumb covers one degree of sky.  For Apollo 13 fans – this is why Jim Lovell was making the same weird gestures.  He was, in fact measuring the sky in degrees.

  Most Sophisticated Urbanites are also unfamiliar with compass directions.   The moon shows up pretty well, however.  So, I will use the moon to “landmark” where you Urbanites should look to find points of interest in the sky.  Those will be planets mostly, since at least four of same are bright enough to be seen in the City Glare.  The moon moves quickly across the starry sky, so pay attention to the dates and times. This first installment is for the night of October 22nd at 20:00 (8PM). 

Skymap from Heavens-Above website:  https://heavens-above.com/SkyChart2.aspx This link is calibrated from my patio. If you are near me, it will work for you. If not, you can change the location to your own house, with one of the links at left of the homepage.

At that date and time the moon will be near Jupiter and Saturn in the South-Southwestern sky.  Jupiter and Saturn are approaching a conjunction which will peak in December when the two planets will be within a tenth of one degree of each other – in the Earth’s sky, only.  They will actual be separated by about five Astronomical Units.  And – an AU is the distance from the Earth to the Sun (about 93,000,000 miles).

   All of my description, the thumb-and-one-eye-closed bit and the skychart are just illustrations.  This is Urban Astronomy – just look where the moon is!  😉